Published : 2023-01-26

Does testosterone intake affect diagnosing primary HIV infection?

Olga Grelewicz

Gabriela Kulbacka

Tomasz Mikuła

Alicja Wiercińska-Drapało


Diagnosis of primary HIV infection may be disrupted by many factors, one of which are drugs such as exogenous steroids. We report a rare case of a 37-year-old male patient, undergoing testosterone treatment in the course of Klinefelter syndrome. He presented with the general symptoms of fever, weakness and diarrhea lasting for 2 weeks. He also had incorrect results of laboratory studies. The fourth generation ELISA HIV test indicated negative outcomes. The HIV real time polymerase chain reaction test was performed and showed very high plasma viral load, over 107 copies/ml. We discuss the connection between androgen replacement therapy used in Klinefelter syndrome and the diagnosis of PHI. This case report illustrates the importance of obtaining a detailed medical history, especially of chronic diseases and medications, and applying appropriate diagnostic tests.  


Exogenous steroids, HIV diagnostics, Klinefelter syndrome, Primary HIV infection, Testosterone





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Grelewicz, O., Kulbacka, G., Mikuła, T., & Wiercińska-Drapało, A. (2023). Does testosterone intake affect diagnosing primary HIV infection?. Prospects in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21(1), 1–4.

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Medical University of Warsaw
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