Published : 2024-03-20

Exploring Digital Health Horizons: A Narrative Review of E-Health Innovations in Poland, Spain, Romania and Estonia.

Aleksandra Białczyk

Gabriela Leśniak

Filip Nadolny

Justyna Mrowiec

Antoni Otałęga


E-health offers new opportunities for self-management, health and social care and access to health information. Over the last decade, the use of e-health solutions by patients, healthcare providers, professionals and citizens has increased significantly. This article provides an overview of e-health innovations in Poland, Spain, Romania and Estonia, focussing on the digital development of healthcare services. It outlines the concept of e-health and the innovative solutions the countries listed have introduced in this area. They all face challenges such as the cost of implementing new technologies, data access and the security of patient data. As a result, there is a constant need for coordinated collaboration, legislation and clear guidelines for the use of technology in healthcare. The lessons learnt from these countries are helping to shape the digital future of healthcare in Europe. In Poland, the Ministry of Health oversees the eHealth Centre, which has made remarkable progress in the field of eHealth services such as the Internet patient account, electronic prescriptions and electronic referrals. The biggest challenges include financing innovation and improving digital skills. Poland has also recently introduced the no-fault system as an alternative compensation system for medical errors, modelled on similar systems in Denmark and Sweden. Technological progress is driving the transformation of the Spanish healthcare system, which is particularly evident in the area of telemedicine and innovative healthcare systems. The Spanish Digital Health Strategy lines up with broader national initiatives. Despite challenges such as underfunding, Romania has introduced digital healthcare with the Health Electronic Record since 2014. As an absolute pioneer in the digitalisation of healthcare in Europe, Estonia is proud of its achievements in the digitalisation of healthcare data and services. The Estonian eHealth Foundation and the nationwide health information system are an example of seamless integration and set a benchmark for comprehensive digital healthcare.


e-health, innovation, healthcare, health system





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Białczyk, A., Leśniak, G., Nadolny, F., Mrowiec, J., & Otałęga, A. (2024). Exploring Digital Health Horizons: A Narrative Review of E-Health Innovations in Poland, Spain, Romania and Estonia. Prospects in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22(1), 32–37.

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Editorial Team
Stefana Banacha 1
02-097 Warsaw, Poland
Medical University of Warsaw
ul. Żwirki i Wigury 61
02-091 Warszawa

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